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Arusha Peace Agreement



The N`sele ceasefire agreement of 12 July 1992 did not lead to a cessation of hostilities. Both sides continued to engage in fighting.1 The ceasefire agreement included a provision for the establishment of a 50-member Neutral Military Observer Group – I (NMOG-I) provided by the Organization of African Unity (OAU). The observers came from Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal and Zimbabwe and were sent in the first week of August 1992.2 This also calls into question the commitment of all parties to the implementation of the peace agreements. It notes the general distrust of the intentions of the other parties, which could lead to problems in the integration of the armed forces. She writes: “Although the leaders of both sides signed the peace agreement, neither side trusts the other`s intentions. The historical rivalries between the Hutu majorities, which prevail in the country, and the Tutsi minority, which prevails within the RPF, continue to fuel antagonism. On the one hand, there are still doubts as to whether the RPF is committed to democracy or to the seizure of power by the government and the re-establishment of the Tutsi regime. On the other hand, doubts remain about the commitment of the president and his close entourage to share the country`s government with the RPF. Mental and emotional adjustments will not be easy. No serious violations were reported between the government and the 16 armed movements or political parties that signed the agreement in August 2000.1 Three Tutsi political parties – the Independent Workers` Party, the National Alliance for Rights and Development and the Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development – were formed on 20 August 2000.

September 2000 part of the agreement.2 CNDD-FDD and Palipehutu-FNL did not sign the agreement. On 2 December 2002, the largest Hutu party, the CNDD-FDD, signed a ceasefire agreement with the transitional government. Not all major parties to the conflict signed the agreement in 2003. During this three-year break, the implementation of civil administration reforms began. The agreement called for reforms to depoliticize the civil service, reduce corruption and increase skills. The Government conducted a census of civil servants throughout the country in 2001. In the result, published in February 2002, 40,642 persons were employed in the civil service, but the Ministry of the Civil Service had sent pay cheques to 41,642 persons. Approximately 1,000 paid persons were missing.1 In July 2002, Parliament passed a new law allowing trade unions for civil servants.2 No steps have been taken to achieve a balance between ethnic groups in the public sector. Physical reconstruction and political reconstruction must be mutually supportive.

Political reconstruction is aimed at facilitating national reconciliation and peaceful coexistence and must aim at establishing the rule of law. In this context, the following programs and measures must be taken: In January 1993, a ceasefire violation was reported and a 50-member NOMG had no offensive capability.6 When ceasefire violations continued, the Rwandan government declared the ceasefire and asked the NMOG to review the ceasefire and the return of the RPF to its former position.7 The NMOG commander, stressed, however, that its group needed to be reinforced with additional personnel and appropriate equipment to deal with the situation caused by the resumption of the conflict.8 In fact, MONUTO did not receive permission from the Kigali army headquarters to visit the site where the ceasefire was broken.9 The Rwandan government and the RPF committed to ending the ceasefire from 9 March. following a high-level meeting from 5 to 5 March. March. 7 March. The NMOG remained intact in monitoring the ceasefire agreement.10 The NMOG confirmed the withdrawal of RPF troops from the Mutara, Byumba and Ruhengeri areas until February 8, 1993 before the position.11 After the withdrawal, the area became a demilitarized zone between the government and RPF forces and was administered by the NMOG.12 Late November 1993 The peace agreement and ceasefire were on a very very basic basis. When a massacre in Ruhengeri prefecture put the RPF and the government in conflict, both refused to participate in the joint commission set up to integrate the army, thus putting an end to demobilization efforts (document 19 and document 20). Not all major parties to the conflict signed the agreement in 2003. During this three-year break, the implementation of the Dispute Settlement Committee began.

A 29-member Implementation Monitoring Committee (IMC) was inaugurated on 27 November by former South African President Nelson Mandela. The UN Secretary-General has appointed Berhanu Dinka, the UN Representative in the Great Lakes Region, to head the ICD. The committee was composed of representatives of all the signatories to the agreement, with the exception of Parena – an intransigent Tutsi party.1 The first meeting of the CIM was held on 30 November 2000.2 The CIM was to reach agreement on issues related to the transitional leadership, a timetable for its implementation and the proposed peacekeeping force. The second meeting took place on 1 December 2000 and failed to resolve these issues.3 The new round of talks took place on 15 December 2000. It was scheduled to take place in Arusha in January 2001. [4] Peter Tarnoff, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, said: “While the [Rwandan] government is receptive to proposals from the IMF [International Monetary Fund] and the World Bank, Bank staff have noted that it faces many limitations and will soon have to make crucial decisions.” He continues: “The Bank is also supporting a UNDP-led roundtable on Rwanda to assess humanitarian needs (including demobilization), but only after a comprehensive macroeconomic agreement has been reached and the means have been found to support this.” He writes that the Rwandan government “has stated that it will cancel its participation in the Joint Commission for the Reconstitution of the Armed Forces and the Gendarmerie under the Arusha Peace Agreement because of this massacre. Talks have been suspended since mid-October, but the head of mission urged the defense minister to return to the table last week to avoid delays in the demobilization schedule. The head of the mission demanded from the Minister of Defence proof of the RPF`s involvement in the massacre, recognizing that the unity of the Rwandan people can only be achieved when a definitive solution to the problem of Rwandan refugees in their country is an inalienable right and a factor of peace, national unity and reconciliation; The talks, which were intended to negotiate the division of power between the rebels and the Rwandan government, resulted in an agreement that favored the Rwandan Patriotic Front due to disagreements within the government. The government delegation was led by opposition Foreign Minister Boniface Ngulinzira (MDR) until President Habyarimana replaced him with Defence Minister James Gasana (MRND) in January 1993. [5] The Arusha Agreement deprived the president of many powers and transferred them to the transitional government. In a speech on 15 November 1992, Habyarimana called the Arusha Agreement “scraps of paper” and mocked his opponents for avoiding elections. According to André Guichaoua.

this did not reflect the rejection of the peace agreements as such: in 2001, the ICD addressed various issues and the implementation of the Arusha Agreement. In this context, the 25. An agreement on the transitional leadership reached in July 2001.5 With regard to serious ceasefire negotiations with rebel groups, the CIM called on the transitional government to consider draft laws on provisional amnesty for returning exiles; genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes; 6 weeks after the signing of the Arusha Agreement in August 1993 (Document 32), Joyce Leader replied to the US Secretary of State, warning that “although the leaders of both sides have signed the peace agreement, neither side trusts the intentions of the others” (Document 18). As stated in the agreement, the main task of the African Mission in Burundi (AMIB) was to monitor the implementation of the ceasefire agreement, support the initiatives of the GDR and create favourable conditions for the deployment of UN peacekeepers. Through their presence, the troops of the African Mission in Burundi have deterred or discouraged ceasefire violations. They also supported the GDR process. Following the signing of the agreement on 28 August 2000, it was not ratified during the October parliamentary session due to disagreements between MEPs over the dates of implementation of the agreement. Nevertheless, the Transitional Parliament ratified the agreement on 30 November 2000. [fn]”Burundi national assembly ratifies Arusha peace agreement”, Agence France Presse, 30 November 2000. [/efn_note] No other information is available on the disarmament of former combatants and civilian disarmament programmes. However, prior to the 2010 elections, it was suspected that the last rebel group to join the peace process, the Forces de libération nationale (FNL), had been disarmed in 2009.1 On 6 June 2010, the Forces de libération nationale (FNL).

In April 1994, the plane was shot down by Habyarimana and Burundian President Cyprien Ntaryamira (also Hutu) as it was on its way to Kigali airport. Responsibility for the attack is controversial, with Hutu extremists and the RPF suspected. .

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Zwanger En Tijdelijk Contract Wordt Niet Verlengd



Do you have a fixed-term contract that expires during your pregnancy? Then, your employer does not have to renew your contract. But your pregnancy shouldn`t be the reason not to renew your contract. Because then your employer makes the direct distinction between men and women. In doing so, he would be guilty of discrimination. Is there a ban on dismissal? Then, the UWV will not give permission to terminate your employment contract unless the company is closed. Will your employer terminate the business? Then he can terminate your contract during your pregnancy. Your employer then needs a dismissal permit from the UWV. With a permanent contract, the rules only become stricter: in case of termination, there must be a valid reason and the employer must prove and prove it. If you suspect that you have been discriminated against because of your pregnancy, contact the Human Rights College. If they decide in your favor, you can`t legally enforce anything yet, but you are very strong in a possible lawsuit. Often, the employer wants to settle scores with you in such a case and you will receive a few months` salary. The installer tried to dissuade himself: the person who sent him the application was “not formally authorized” to inform him. Pregnancy would not have played a role in the non-renewal of professional contacts.

A desperate defense, of course. Employers shouldn`t think too lightly about discrimination, Bos says. “That`s also why we`re drawing a lot of attention to this topic. Rights and obligations must be adequately regulated for both women and employers. » Do you earn more than this maximum daily wage? Then, your employer will usually supplement the benefit with your regular salary. He does not have to. There are usually too few concrete facts for this. As a result, many of the thousands of complaints the college receives cannot be addressed. And it is only in about half of the cases dealt with that it can be proved that there is discrimination. For example, the lawyer often sees that women receive good reviews from their employer until they announce that they are pregnant. “Then suddenly, complaints arise and you are no longer invested.” Women are increasingly turning to the agency as it is often the only way to file a complaint if you have a fixed-term contract that is not renewed.

Are you sick during your maternity leave? Then report it to your employer. You have nothing to give us. Your maternity benefit will continue as usual. If you are receiving your leave because of your pregnancy, you can file this matter with the Human Rights College. You will then need to explain that your employer will treat you differently because of your pregnancy. The opinion of the committee shall normally be heard. However, it is not mandatory. Until January 1, 2020, there could be a fixed-term employment clause in your salary contract.

This is no longer allowed. What happened to the installation employee happens to many women every year with a flexible contract, a fixed-term contract, during the assignment or in a fixed-term job. This was again made clear a few months ago by a survey conducted by the Dutch Institute for Human Rights` Pregnancy Discrimination Hotline. The hotline estimates that every year, 65,000 women in the Netherlands are discriminated against during pregnancy. It is not for nothing that the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment launched the Action Plan on Discrimination in Pregnancy in March last year. Does your discharge have nothing to do with your pregnancy? Then the employer can fire you during the trial period. Just make sure your trial period is valid. Do you have a paycheck? Then, the same rules apply to you as to employees who are directly employed by the company. The reason for the exit should have nothing to do with your pregnancy.

“At the moment, the employee is not yet fully at work. The employee shows positive steps. However, this means that the employee may not yet be fully at work if a contract extension were to take place. That extension of contract would then be 5 months, of which [the applicant`s first name] constitutes a large part of her maternity leave. For this reason, the organization decided not to renew the contract earlier than required by law. Note: You are only entitled to 16 weeks of paid maternity leave if your due date is within 10 weeks of your cancellation date. The UWV will then continue to pay you during your vacation. Do you cancel more than 10 weeks before your due date? You are then no longer entitled to paid leave. In 2017, the college received more than a third of additional complaints of discrimination.

35% of the 4259 complaints come from pregnant women who feel disadvantaged by their employer. We have listed for you the frequently asked questions about pregnancy: Pregnancy FAQ. You are entitled to 6 weeks of maternity leave before the date on which you were calculated. You can continue working up to 4 weeks before the due date. The days you have left in this case will be taken with you during your maternity leave. If you decide to continue working and get sick between week 6 and week 4, you will automatically go on vacation. If you still decide to quit your job, you realize that it`s harder to find a good job if you haven`t worked in a while. Once you have an employment contract, you are well protected as a pregnant woman. You can only be dismissed six weeks after your maternity leave.

But there is one exception: your probationary period, which usually lasts one month. So don`t make the mistake of admitting that you`re pregnant on the first day of work. But even if you are fired during your probationary period, the employer must prove in a possible lawsuit that he did so because of malfunctions. At least 3 weeks before taking maternity leave, apply for the allowance from your employer. Your employer is requesting the benefit from us on your behalf. You agree with your employer to whom we pay the benefit. We usually pay this to your employer. He will then pay you your salaries. .

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World Bank O&m Agreement



At the national level, many countries have developed model tender documents, model contracts or important contractual clauses, as well as guidelines. These include a number of jurisdictions with extensive PPP programmes, such as the United Kingdom, Australia and South Africa. Standardized agreements are also increasingly being used for specific industries to reduce the cost of each individual contract. Other countries incorporate certain standardized elements into general legislation to regulate all PPP contracts. The purpose of this checklist is to identify key areas to consider when reviewing and drafting an operations and maintenance contract where the contract is a stand-alone agreement (i.e. the operator enters into a contract directly with the grantor) and is not part of a concession agreement where the concessionaire`s obligations are assigned to an operator during the period of operation. The term “PPP contract” refers to the contractual documents that govern the relationship between the public and private parties in connection with a PPP transaction. These documents define the rights and obligations of the parties, address risk allocation and change management mechanisms. In practice, the “PPP contract” can include several documents and agreements. For more details, see Box 3.9: “What is the PPP contract” (p. 155) of the PPP Reference Manual? There is a long tradition of using standardized agreements to purchase goods and services for traditional public works projects, and many international financial institutions, including the World Bank, require the use of standard tender documents for the projects they fund. The use of standardized contracts for complex public-private partnership (PPP) transactions is less common and international financial institutions have not yet created standardized agreements for PPP transactions.

For a summary of each type of agreement and model agreement, see: Contracts for Operations and Maintenance Contracts. The headings of the terms of this Agreement are provided for convenience only and will not be taken into account when interpreting or modifying the terms of this Agreement (42 pages). Below you will find links to examples of standardised PPP agreements, PPP contractual clauses, tender documents and guides developed at national and international level: Keywords: legal framework, contract, legal issues, model contract, model agreement, sample clauses, water, operation and maintenance Below you will also find checklists for agreements/sectors and examples of clauses: * Note: Although the main characteristics of each category in summary, there is overlap between the categories, and the name given to a particular agreement may not reflect this classic categorization. It is also necessary to determine whether a particular classification is enshrined in the laws of the host country, as in the case of many civil courts where there are strict definitions of “concessions” and “leases”. The examples of agreements in this section are not the full range of agreements related to infrastructure projects. Your agreements are NOT intended to be used as “templates”. When preparing and drafting an agreement, legal advice should be sought to ensure that it is appropriate and feasible in the circumstances of a particular project, sector and country. The terms and conditions of this website can be found under About PPPLRC. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have a wide range of forms that differ in terms of the level of participation and risk taken by the private party.

The terms of a PPP are usually set out in a contract or agreement to describe each party`s responsibilities and clearly map the risk. The following graph shows the range of PPP agreements*. The Government of India`s Planning Commission provides an overview of model concession contracts for PPPs for a number of transport-related projects. Benchmarking period (clause 5) – particularly useful when data or asset records are not available or reliable prior to the conclusion of the contract Public-Private Partnerships Reference Guide, version: 2.0, Asian Development Bank (ADB), Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), World Bank Group, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), Second Edition, July 2014, Table 3.1 “Examples of Standard PPP Contracts and Contractual Clauses,” p. 158. Clear provisions on changes in circumstances and variations (clause 20) Provisions that may not be recommended to be repeated / may require further examination: Initial benchmarking period provided at the beginning of the contract to review the figures relating to the performance of the public service and the quality of assets, which are the benchmark for performance and improvements under the contract. THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR THE PPP LEGAL RESOURCE CENTER FOR CONTRACTS, LAWS AND REGULATIONS (PPPLRC). THIS IS ONLY A CHECKLIST FOR GENERAL GUIDANCE PURPOSES AND SHOULD NOT BE USED AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR PROJECT-SPECIFIC LEGAL ADVICE. . Revised report on the recommended provisions of PPP treaties prepared by Gide Loyrette Nouel at the request of the World Bank, July 2015. Significant investments are needed to improve assets, reduce leaks and increase frequency (with the 24/7 target) Circumstances in which this contract may be appropriate: Performance-based fees associated with reducing the utility deficit each year (through reduced leakage and non-revenue-generating connections, higher revenues through better bill collection and higher rates) Many financial institutions, including the World Bank, have standardized documentation for public procurement of goods and services.

For more information, see Procurement Process and Quotation Documents. Title: Checklist for operation and maintenance contracts (autonomous) The operator paid a fixed fee + a performance-based fee + a percentage of the work for the management of the plant plan and works. Draft report on the recommended provisions of the PPP Treaty Restructuring, corporatisation and decentralisation Dispute settlement – the contract provides for negotiation, mediation and arbitration. For more related information, see PPP Checklist and Risk Matrix Disclaimer: Resources on this site are typically managed by third-party websites. The World Bank assumes no responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or quality of the information provided or incorrect links or misplaced resources. Any changes to the website or underlying link may result in changes to the PPPLRC`s analysis and recommendations. The inclusion of materials on this website should not be construed as an obligation to provide funding or as an endorsement by the World Bank of the quality of the document or project. If you have any comments on any of the links provided on the PPPLRC, please contact Joint Ventures and Partial Divestiture of Public Assets Full Divestiture Operator here to manage and perform capital works in accordance with an agreed capital asset processing program.

The checklist should also be useful in identifying areas that have not been addressed or that require further attention. Title: Water and Wastewater Operation and Maintenance Contract (Example 1) When the owner is willing to give the operator a lot of responsibility in exchange for system improvements. O&M Contract Checklist1.27 MB, Operations and Maintenance Contract Checklist766.57 KB. Medium-term involvement (7 to 15 years) of a private operator in the operation and maintenance of a municipal water [and wastewater] system where the owner seeks to improve service delivery and quality (with the aim of 24/7 water service), as well as a reduction in losses and deficits. . . .

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Will Spectrum Mobile Buyout My Verizon Contract



The whole family uses your internet service at home. So why shouldn`t everyone be on the same mobile service? You can add your spouse, children, siblings, and other family members to your Spectrum Mobile plan. Spectrum Mobile and Verizon offer similar services through their shared 4G LTE network, but they are not identical. Instead, in addition to its cellular service, Spectrum uses a network of nearly 500,000 data access points to help you stay on Wi-Fi instead of 4G LTE. This should help you control your data usage and, in turn, save you some money on your By the Gig plan. For these users, the use of the mobile hotspot is also included in the 20 GB or 30 GB of monthly broadband data. The plan gives you unlimited conversations and texts, truly unlimited data (with no caps), access to tons of high-speed Wi-Fi hotspots, free international calls and TEXT messages to specific locations, and access to mobile hotspots. It`s like two scoops of ice cream with all the toppings. Spectrum Mobile now offers an Unlimited Plus plan for an extra $10 per month with two or more lines if you want to work with it a little more. It brings your streaming to HD quality, and you have 30GB of premium data.

Otherwise, a single line of Unlimited will cost $45 and Unlimited Plus will cost you $55. Spectrum Mobile doesn`t actually have its own mobile network. Instead, it uses Verizon Wireless` cell towers to power its cellular service. This is good news for Spectrum Mobile customers. You must opt for the bundled services of Spectrum Cable, Spectrum Internet and Voice to be eligible for the contract buyback option. Spectrum offers the contract redemption option for Spectrum Triple Play and Double Play customers (in select areas). The answer to mobile spectrum buyback contracts is unfortunately no! In short, here`s what you need to do to get the contract buyback setup: Even if you`re eligible for the service, you should consider whether you want your cellular plan to be linked to your home internet plan. The mobile hotspot is also available to By the Gig users, but if you use it frequently, it will result in a higher bill as you will still be using data when the mobile hotspot feature is enabled. To watch videos in HD quality without using your mobile data, you can connect to Wi-Fi at any time. Spectrum Mobile uses Verizon`s network to provide coverage.

Luckily for Spectrum mobile users, Verizon is the best network in the country, covering 70% of the country. Check out Verizon Wireless` coverage map to see where you can get great Spectrum Mobile service. If you cancel your Internet subscription and want to continue maintaining your cellular service, you will be charged an additional $20 per month per line, and your Wi-Fi speeds will be reduced to 5 Mbps. Yuck. For By the Gig users, mobile hotspot speeds are reduced to 256 Kbps after 5 GB per billing cycle. Many discount providers and mobile virtual network (MVNO) providers, such as Spectrum Mobile, save on discounts. But Spectrum actually offers its customers decent extra benefits. So why should you get cellular service from your ISP? Here are some good reasons.

Spectrum purchase applies to customers who order a Triple Play plan or, in some cases, a Double Play plan (contact Spectrum Customer Service for more information). You must submit a completed Spectrum Contract Redemption Form with a copy of the final invoice you received from your last provider, clearly indicating the early cancellation fee. If there is no early cancellation fee on your invoice, ask your supplier to send you a personalized invoice. Spectrum`s purchase of the contract applies only to cable television services when registering for television, Internet and home telephone. It does not apply to Spectrum Mobile. For those who want to upgrade to Spectrum Mobile, Spectrum unfortunately doesn`t offer a contract buyback at the moment, but if you order a triple play plan with Spectrum Internet, as well as an active credit card with a good credit score, you can easily sign up for the amazing Spectrum Mobile service. However, you will have to bear all the unpaid costs for mobile phones and connections from your old provider. .

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