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Antitrust Lawsuit against Google



In the new lawsuit, integrated below, the bipartisan coalition of states claims that Google is using “misleading” security warnings to keep consumers and developers in its enclosed app garden, the Google Play Store. But the fees Google charges Android app developers are probably the meat of the deal. The lawsuit filed in California federal court is the third by attorneys general to target the company for alleged antitrust violations. If the past is a guide, it could take years to resolve cases. But whatever happens, Google will have to spend a lot of time and attention fending off three (or maybe two) major lawsuits — just like Microsoft did more than two decades ago, distracting its management enough to make room for internet newcomers like Google. A repeat of this dynamic could radically reshape the tech industry, no matter who ultimately wins in court. Google has criticized in a new antitrust lawsuit of 35 states for “monopoly power”. Biden`s antitrust officials have recovered from the Trump administration`s decisions to file landmark antitrust lawsuits against the tech giants. In addition to the lawsuit against Google for the search, the Federal Trade Commission sued Facebook last year, accusing it of abusing its power over social media. After a judge dismissed the case, the F.T.C.

resubmitted it. No. The main difference to keep in mind is between competitiveness and anti-competitiveness. Being competitive means trying to be the best – the highest quality, the most affordable prices, etc. – to attract the most business. Being anti-competitive means using your power in a market to exclude potential rivals so you don`t have to go so hard to be the best. The common thread running through the three lawsuits is the allegation that Google engaged in anti-competitive behavior in order to consolidate its monopoly position instead of simply trying to win on the merits. The lawsuit alleges that Google engaged in a variety of anti-competitive behaviors to create and maintain its monopoly power in digital advertising markets and to drive competitors away.

He also claims that Google and Facebook illegally agreed not to compete with each other. This could be a particularly damaging indictment against both companies, as Section 1 of the Sherman Antitrust Act prohibits two companies from cooperating in this way, and such cases are usually easier to prove in court. The amended U.S. lawsuit, filed Friday night in a federal court in New York, accuses Google of using monopolistic and coercive tactics with advertisers to dominate and distribute competition in online advertising. “In addition to representing both buyers and sellers of online display advertising, Google also operates the largest exchange, AdX,” according to the lawsuit, filed by the Republican attorneys general of Arkansas, Idaho, Indiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Kentucky, and Texas. “In this electronically traded market, Google is a pitcher, a hitter and a referee.” “It`s not because (Texas) Attorney General (Ken) Paxton claims something is true. This trial is full of inaccuracies,” the statement said. The Justice Department has accelerated an investigation into Google`s digital advertising practices and could take antitrust legal action against the internet giant before the end of the year, two people familiar with the government`s mindset said Wednesday. “This lawsuit is not about helping the little guy or protecting consumers,” the company said.

“It`s about feeding a handful of big app developers who want to enjoy Google Play without paying for it.” The lawsuit is good news for the digital media industry. “This latest lawsuit underscores bipartisan and far-reaching concerns about Google`s anti-competitive behavior,” Jason Kint, CEO of digital media trade association Digital Content Next, said in a statement to Recode. “We are pleased that almost all states are taking action against Google`s coordinated activities to consolidate its dominance at the expense of publishers, advertisers and consumers.” The complaint alleges that Google`s anti-competitive practices had an adverse effect on competition and consumers. Google has discouraged any significant search competitor from getting significant distribution and scaling, eliminating competition for the majority of searches in the United States. By restricting competition in search, Google`s behavior has hurt consumers by reducing search quality (including in terms of dimensions such as privacy, privacy, and use of consumer data), reducing choice in search, and hindering innovation. By removing competition in advertising, Google has the power to charge advertisers more than it could in a competitive market and reduce the quality of the services it offers them. By taking legal action, the department is trying to stop Google`s anti-competitive behavior and restore competition for U.S. consumers, advertisers, and all businesses that now depend on the internet economy. “As with its landmark antitrust lawsuits against AT&T in 1974 and Microsoft in 1998, the department is once again enforcing the Sherman Act to restore the role of competition and open the door to the next wave of innovation — this time in major digital markets,” said Assistant Attorney General Jeffrey A. Rosen. The Texas lawsuit also contains a surprising claim: Google struck an illegal deal to get Facebook to facilitate competition with its advertising business in exchange for preferential treatment at Google-run ad auctions.

If true, it would be a simple case of conspiracy to restrict trade in violation of Section 1 of the Sherman Act, which prohibits such business-to-business transactions. (Facebook is not named as a defendant in the lawsuit, but could also have legal issues arising from the agreement.) The lawsuit also highlights Google`s use of a secret program called “Project Bernanke” in 2013, which used bid data to give an advantage to its own ad purchase. For example, in an iteration of the program in 2015, Google reportedly dropped the second highest bids from publishers` auctions, piled money in a pool, and then spent that money just to inflate the bids of advertisers who used the company`s Google Ads. Otherwise, they would likely have lost the auction, the states said. A Google spokesperson said the lawsuit characterized one of the improvements the company made to optimize advertisers` bids. If the Department of Justice pursues the lawsuit, it will be the federal government`s second lawsuit against Google. In Federal Court, the department filed an antitrust lawsuit in October, alleging that Google abused its monopoly on internet search to harm rivals and consumers. The case mirrors a lawsuit filed against Google last August by Fortnite`s Epic Games, and a wave of antitrust class actions filed on behalf of app developers and consumers claiming Google`s policies have led to higher prices.

This comes just nine days after the antitrust crusade suffered its first major setback, when a federal judge in Washington dismissed the Federal Trade Commission`s antitrust lawsuit against Facebook on the grounds that the agency had not provided enough evidence that the world`s largest social network was a monopoly. A group of 37 attorneys general on Wednesday filed a second major antitrust lawsuit against Google, accusing the company of abusing its market power to stifle competitors and force consumers to make in-app payments that give the company a steep discount. Texas has led a lawsuit by several attorneys general accusing Google of abusing competition in advertising technology. It was unclear whether the Justice Department would join the states in their complaint. The lawsuit is supported by a bipartisan group of attorneys general, unlike the DOJ case, which had only the support of Republican corporations. Google responded to the latest lawsuit with a blog post by Adam Cohen, Google`s director of economic policy, who said changes in its search would hurt consumers. “[The lawsuit] suggests that we should not have worked to improve the research, and that we should indeed be less useful to you,” the message reads. “This lawsuit calls for changes in Google Search design that require us to prominently display online intermediaries instead of direct links to businesses.” The updated claims are the latest in a wave of regulatory scrutiny from google about its practices. The tech company faces several lawsuits, including one from the Justice Department for monopolistic practices. Read more The search giant is facing lawsuits from attorneys general of most U.S. states and the DOJ.

The latest lawsuit, filed Thursday by attorneys general in 35 states, accuses Google of using anti-competitive behavior to maintain its search and search advertising monopolies. The flood of lawsuits follows years of criticism from competitors, lawmakers and activists at Google and other big tech companies like Facebook, who have been accused for years of engaging in anti-competitive practices. .

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Zwanger En Tijdelijk Contract Wordt Niet Verlengd



Do you have a fixed-term contract that expires during your pregnancy? Then, your employer does not have to renew your contract. But your pregnancy shouldn`t be the reason not to renew your contract. Because then your employer makes the direct distinction between men and women. In doing so, he would be guilty of discrimination. Is there a ban on dismissal? Then, the UWV will not give permission to terminate your employment contract unless the company is closed. Will your employer terminate the business? Then he can terminate your contract during your pregnancy. Your employer then needs a dismissal permit from the UWV. With a permanent contract, the rules only become stricter: in case of termination, there must be a valid reason and the employer must prove and prove it. If you suspect that you have been discriminated against because of your pregnancy, contact the Human Rights College. If they decide in your favor, you can`t legally enforce anything yet, but you are very strong in a possible lawsuit. Often, the employer wants to settle scores with you in such a case and you will receive a few months` salary. The installer tried to dissuade himself: the person who sent him the application was “not formally authorized” to inform him. Pregnancy would not have played a role in the non-renewal of professional contacts.

A desperate defense, of course. Employers shouldn`t think too lightly about discrimination, Bos says. “That`s also why we`re drawing a lot of attention to this topic. Rights and obligations must be adequately regulated for both women and employers. » Do you earn more than this maximum daily wage? Then, your employer will usually supplement the benefit with your regular salary. He does not have to. There are usually too few concrete facts for this. As a result, many of the thousands of complaints the college receives cannot be addressed. And it is only in about half of the cases dealt with that it can be proved that there is discrimination. For example, the lawyer often sees that women receive good reviews from their employer until they announce that they are pregnant. “Then suddenly, complaints arise and you are no longer invested.” Women are increasingly turning to the agency as it is often the only way to file a complaint if you have a fixed-term contract that is not renewed.

Are you sick during your maternity leave? Then report it to your employer. You have nothing to give us. Your maternity benefit will continue as usual. If you are receiving your leave because of your pregnancy, you can file this matter with the Human Rights College. You will then need to explain that your employer will treat you differently because of your pregnancy. The opinion of the committee shall normally be heard. However, it is not mandatory. Until January 1, 2020, there could be a fixed-term employment clause in your salary contract.

This is no longer allowed. What happened to the installation employee happens to many women every year with a flexible contract, a fixed-term contract, during the assignment or in a fixed-term job. This was again made clear a few months ago by a survey conducted by the Dutch Institute for Human Rights` Pregnancy Discrimination Hotline. The hotline estimates that every year, 65,000 women in the Netherlands are discriminated against during pregnancy. It is not for nothing that the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment launched the Action Plan on Discrimination in Pregnancy in March last year. Does your discharge have nothing to do with your pregnancy? Then the employer can fire you during the trial period. Just make sure your trial period is valid. Do you have a paycheck? Then, the same rules apply to you as to employees who are directly employed by the company. The reason for the exit should have nothing to do with your pregnancy.

“At the moment, the employee is not yet fully at work. The employee shows positive steps. However, this means that the employee may not yet be fully at work if a contract extension were to take place. That extension of contract would then be 5 months, of which [the applicant`s first name] constitutes a large part of her maternity leave. For this reason, the organization decided not to renew the contract earlier than required by law. Note: You are only entitled to 16 weeks of paid maternity leave if your due date is within 10 weeks of your cancellation date. The UWV will then continue to pay you during your vacation. Do you cancel more than 10 weeks before your due date? You are then no longer entitled to paid leave. In 2017, the college received more than a third of additional complaints of discrimination.

35% of the 4259 complaints come from pregnant women who feel disadvantaged by their employer. We have listed for you the frequently asked questions about pregnancy: Pregnancy FAQ. You are entitled to 6 weeks of maternity leave before the date on which you were calculated. You can continue working up to 4 weeks before the due date. The days you have left in this case will be taken with you during your maternity leave. If you decide to continue working and get sick between week 6 and week 4, you will automatically go on vacation. If you still decide to quit your job, you realize that it`s harder to find a good job if you haven`t worked in a while. Once you have an employment contract, you are well protected as a pregnant woman. You can only be dismissed six weeks after your maternity leave.

But there is one exception: your probationary period, which usually lasts one month. So don`t make the mistake of admitting that you`re pregnant on the first day of work. But even if you are fired during your probationary period, the employer must prove in a possible lawsuit that he did so because of malfunctions. At least 3 weeks before taking maternity leave, apply for the allowance from your employer. Your employer is requesting the benefit from us on your behalf. You agree with your employer to whom we pay the benefit. We usually pay this to your employer. He will then pay you your salaries. .

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World Bank O&m Agreement



At the national level, many countries have developed model tender documents, model contracts or important contractual clauses, as well as guidelines. These include a number of jurisdictions with extensive PPP programmes, such as the United Kingdom, Australia and South Africa. Standardized agreements are also increasingly being used for specific industries to reduce the cost of each individual contract. Other countries incorporate certain standardized elements into general legislation to regulate all PPP contracts. The purpose of this checklist is to identify key areas to consider when reviewing and drafting an operations and maintenance contract where the contract is a stand-alone agreement (i.e. the operator enters into a contract directly with the grantor) and is not part of a concession agreement where the concessionaire`s obligations are assigned to an operator during the period of operation. The term “PPP contract” refers to the contractual documents that govern the relationship between the public and private parties in connection with a PPP transaction. These documents define the rights and obligations of the parties, address risk allocation and change management mechanisms. In practice, the “PPP contract” can include several documents and agreements. For more details, see Box 3.9: “What is the PPP contract” (p. 155) of the PPP Reference Manual? There is a long tradition of using standardized agreements to purchase goods and services for traditional public works projects, and many international financial institutions, including the World Bank, require the use of standard tender documents for the projects they fund. The use of standardized contracts for complex public-private partnership (PPP) transactions is less common and international financial institutions have not yet created standardized agreements for PPP transactions.

For a summary of each type of agreement and model agreement, see: Contracts for Operations and Maintenance Contracts. The headings of the terms of this Agreement are provided for convenience only and will not be taken into account when interpreting or modifying the terms of this Agreement (42 pages). Below you will find links to examples of standardised PPP agreements, PPP contractual clauses, tender documents and guides developed at national and international level: Keywords: legal framework, contract, legal issues, model contract, model agreement, sample clauses, water, operation and maintenance Below you will also find checklists for agreements/sectors and examples of clauses: * Note: Although the main characteristics of each category in summary, there is overlap between the categories, and the name given to a particular agreement may not reflect this classic categorization. It is also necessary to determine whether a particular classification is enshrined in the laws of the host country, as in the case of many civil courts where there are strict definitions of “concessions” and “leases”. The examples of agreements in this section are not the full range of agreements related to infrastructure projects. Your agreements are NOT intended to be used as “templates”. When preparing and drafting an agreement, legal advice should be sought to ensure that it is appropriate and feasible in the circumstances of a particular project, sector and country. The terms and conditions of this website can be found under About PPPLRC. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have a wide range of forms that differ in terms of the level of participation and risk taken by the private party.

The terms of a PPP are usually set out in a contract or agreement to describe each party`s responsibilities and clearly map the risk. The following graph shows the range of PPP agreements*. The Government of India`s Planning Commission provides an overview of model concession contracts for PPPs for a number of transport-related projects. Benchmarking period (clause 5) – particularly useful when data or asset records are not available or reliable prior to the conclusion of the contract Public-Private Partnerships Reference Guide, version: 2.0, Asian Development Bank (ADB), Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), World Bank Group, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), Second Edition, July 2014, Table 3.1 “Examples of Standard PPP Contracts and Contractual Clauses,” p. 158. Clear provisions on changes in circumstances and variations (clause 20) Provisions that may not be recommended to be repeated / may require further examination: Initial benchmarking period provided at the beginning of the contract to review the figures relating to the performance of the public service and the quality of assets, which are the benchmark for performance and improvements under the contract. THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR THE PPP LEGAL RESOURCE CENTER FOR CONTRACTS, LAWS AND REGULATIONS (PPPLRC). THIS IS ONLY A CHECKLIST FOR GENERAL GUIDANCE PURPOSES AND SHOULD NOT BE USED AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR PROJECT-SPECIFIC LEGAL ADVICE. . Revised report on the recommended provisions of PPP treaties prepared by Gide Loyrette Nouel at the request of the World Bank, July 2015. Significant investments are needed to improve assets, reduce leaks and increase frequency (with the 24/7 target) Circumstances in which this contract may be appropriate: Performance-based fees associated with reducing the utility deficit each year (through reduced leakage and non-revenue-generating connections, higher revenues through better bill collection and higher rates) Many financial institutions, including the World Bank, have standardized documentation for public procurement of goods and services.

For more information, see Procurement Process and Quotation Documents. Title: Checklist for operation and maintenance contracts (autonomous) The operator paid a fixed fee + a performance-based fee + a percentage of the work for the management of the plant plan and works. Draft report on the recommended provisions of the PPP Treaty Restructuring, corporatisation and decentralisation Dispute settlement – the contract provides for negotiation, mediation and arbitration. For more related information, see PPP Checklist and Risk Matrix Disclaimer: Resources on this site are typically managed by third-party websites. The World Bank assumes no responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or quality of the information provided or incorrect links or misplaced resources. Any changes to the website or underlying link may result in changes to the PPPLRC`s analysis and recommendations. The inclusion of materials on this website should not be construed as an obligation to provide funding or as an endorsement by the World Bank of the quality of the document or project. If you have any comments on any of the links provided on the PPPLRC, please contact Joint Ventures and Partial Divestiture of Public Assets Full Divestiture Operator here to manage and perform capital works in accordance with an agreed capital asset processing program.

The checklist should also be useful in identifying areas that have not been addressed or that require further attention. Title: Water and Wastewater Operation and Maintenance Contract (Example 1) When the owner is willing to give the operator a lot of responsibility in exchange for system improvements. O&M Contract Checklist1.27 MB, Operations and Maintenance Contract Checklist766.57 KB. Medium-term involvement (7 to 15 years) of a private operator in the operation and maintenance of a municipal water [and wastewater] system where the owner seeks to improve service delivery and quality (with the aim of 24/7 water service), as well as a reduction in losses and deficits. . . .

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Will Spectrum Mobile Buyout My Verizon Contract



The whole family uses your internet service at home. So why shouldn`t everyone be on the same mobile service? You can add your spouse, children, siblings, and other family members to your Spectrum Mobile plan. Spectrum Mobile and Verizon offer similar services through their shared 4G LTE network, but they are not identical. Instead, in addition to its cellular service, Spectrum uses a network of nearly 500,000 data access points to help you stay on Wi-Fi instead of 4G LTE. This should help you control your data usage and, in turn, save you some money on your By the Gig plan. For these users, the use of the mobile hotspot is also included in the 20 GB or 30 GB of monthly broadband data. The plan gives you unlimited conversations and texts, truly unlimited data (with no caps), access to tons of high-speed Wi-Fi hotspots, free international calls and TEXT messages to specific locations, and access to mobile hotspots. It`s like two scoops of ice cream with all the toppings. Spectrum Mobile now offers an Unlimited Plus plan for an extra $10 per month with two or more lines if you want to work with it a little more. It brings your streaming to HD quality, and you have 30GB of premium data.

Otherwise, a single line of Unlimited will cost $45 and Unlimited Plus will cost you $55. Spectrum Mobile doesn`t actually have its own mobile network. Instead, it uses Verizon Wireless` cell towers to power its cellular service. This is good news for Spectrum Mobile customers. You must opt for the bundled services of Spectrum Cable, Spectrum Internet and Voice to be eligible for the contract buyback option. Spectrum offers the contract redemption option for Spectrum Triple Play and Double Play customers (in select areas). The answer to mobile spectrum buyback contracts is unfortunately no! In short, here`s what you need to do to get the contract buyback setup: Even if you`re eligible for the service, you should consider whether you want your cellular plan to be linked to your home internet plan. The mobile hotspot is also available to By the Gig users, but if you use it frequently, it will result in a higher bill as you will still be using data when the mobile hotspot feature is enabled. To watch videos in HD quality without using your mobile data, you can connect to Wi-Fi at any time. Spectrum Mobile uses Verizon`s network to provide coverage.

Luckily for Spectrum mobile users, Verizon is the best network in the country, covering 70% of the country. Check out Verizon Wireless` coverage map to see where you can get great Spectrum Mobile service. If you cancel your Internet subscription and want to continue maintaining your cellular service, you will be charged an additional $20 per month per line, and your Wi-Fi speeds will be reduced to 5 Mbps. Yuck. For By the Gig users, mobile hotspot speeds are reduced to 256 Kbps after 5 GB per billing cycle. Many discount providers and mobile virtual network (MVNO) providers, such as Spectrum Mobile, save on discounts. But Spectrum actually offers its customers decent extra benefits. So why should you get cellular service from your ISP? Here are some good reasons.

Spectrum purchase applies to customers who order a Triple Play plan or, in some cases, a Double Play plan (contact Spectrum Customer Service for more information). You must submit a completed Spectrum Contract Redemption Form with a copy of the final invoice you received from your last provider, clearly indicating the early cancellation fee. If there is no early cancellation fee on your invoice, ask your supplier to send you a personalized invoice. Spectrum`s purchase of the contract applies only to cable television services when registering for television, Internet and home telephone. It does not apply to Spectrum Mobile. For those who want to upgrade to Spectrum Mobile, Spectrum unfortunately doesn`t offer a contract buyback at the moment, but if you order a triple play plan with Spectrum Internet, as well as an active credit card with a good credit score, you can easily sign up for the amazing Spectrum Mobile service. However, you will have to bear all the unpaid costs for mobile phones and connections from your old provider. .

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